Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Vision of the Researcher as a Neutral Social Scientist Essay The approach to any of the social scientists has always been one of detachment.Ã Any researcher or scientist in any of the fields of Social Science will emphasize the need for the scientist to maintain a neutral stance and maintain a certain level of distance from the research subjects.Ã Recently, there have been schools of thought that challenge this perception, arguing that once a researcher has been Ã¢â¬Å"capturedÃ¢â¬ he becomes a participant in the Ã¢â¬Å"fierce fight to construct realityÃ¢â¬ (Latour and Woolgar, 1979, pg 31). Other schools of thought criticize the vision of the researcher as a neutral social scientist by insisting that there is no way that a researcher can maintain neutrality in this field (Mulkay, 1983).Ã These criticisms on the vision of the researcher as a neutral social scientist now raise a relevant issue in this field pertaining to what is necessary to become an effective researcher. This discourse will therefore seek to resolve the issue regarding the neutrality of researchers in social science by first identifying the particular needs of social science as a discipline and then by analyzing the traits that have made the researcher effective.Ã The next segment will discuss the relevance of maintaining neutrality as a researcher or social scientist. The analysis portion will attempt to shed light on the criticisms raised regarding this issue and to show how they may be effective traits or characteristics of researchers.Ã Finally, this study will attempt to synthesize the proper traits that make for an effective researcher given the complexity of the issues surrounding the current discipline of social science by proposing that the neutral approach may not always be best suited for every study in this field. The Social Sciences Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Social Sciences are basically characterized as academic disciplines that study and examine the human aspects of the world.Ã While social sciences studying subjective, inter-subjective and objective or structural aspects of society, the scientific method, including quantitative and qualitative methods is often used in this field.Ã Thus social science had a need for theoretical purity which was addressed by the scientific method (Sasson, 1997). Ã The triumphs of mankind in the field of natural sciences such as biology and physics planted the seed for the idea that human society and actions could be studied under the framework of the Ã¢â¬Å"scientific methodÃ¢â¬ .Ã The prominence of this idea soared as it provided hope that a complete understanding of the nature of humans was possible and that the affairs of human beings could now be more rationally controlled. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the greatest problems of the field of social sciences lies in the fact that there have been problems delineating the role of social scientists due to the nature of their work and the relative significance of the field that they are studying (Sasson, 1997).Ã The role of the researcher in social sciences has been affected by the perception of people that social science does not provide a clear line as to the role it plays, whether as a pure researcher, a technocrat or as a public moralist.Ã This is the source of most of the controversies regarding the vision of the researcher as a neutral social scientist. The Researcher Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A researcher must possess certain traits and characteristics to preserve the theoretical purity and integrity of any scientific work under the scientific method.Ã This trait however is made most difficult to possess because of the human tendency to create bias or to completely detach oneself from other social beings.Ã There are however certain guidelines and rules that are helpful in delineating the role and setting the amount of Ã¢â¬Å"acceptableÃ¢â¬ involvement that an effective researcher may have with the research subjects. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As mentioned in the previous section, there have been problems with regard to the role of researchers and thus creating controversy over their neutrality.Ã For the purposes of this section, the role of a social scientist as a pure researcher and what makes him effective will be briefly discussed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã An effective researcher is able to properly understand the qualitative and quantitative approaches to empirical research.Ã Ideally, an effective researcher is able to come up with conclusions or theories regarding the action of humans in society by simply just Ã¢â¬Å"crunching the numbersÃ¢â¬ (Chubin, 2003, pg 75). Ã The quantitative was seen as the more accurate method as it was in line with the principle of the scientific method and since it principally worked by gathering data through objective methods.Ã This enabled researchers to provide relevant information concerning relations, comparisons, and predictions. Ã This was the initial attempt at removing the investigator from the investigation, or in this case, detaching the researcher from the research subject (Smith, 1983). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the social sciences began to expand and it became apparent that the scientific method of employing a quantitative approach was not enough, more and more disciplines in the social sciences began requiring that the interview become a more interested part, or more involved in the research study that had to be conducted (Jacob, 1988).Ã This led to the emphasis now on maintaining the neutrality as a researcher. Relevance of Neutrality as a Researcher Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As previously mentioned, the most important aspect of being an effective researcher lies in being able to maintain total or at least an acceptable level of impartiality with regard to the subject matter as well as the research subjects.Ã More often than not, most researches become drawn into the conflict because of the nature of man as a social being (Wolcott, 1990).Ã Social Sciences, as the name implies, demands a certain level of interaction between the researcher and the subjects for the study which has in turn led to the criticism that it is impossible to attain total impartiality in the field of Social Sciences. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Participant Observation is one of the key tasks in the social sciences and it deals with involvement in the development of the research object or study. Ã The problem here is that more often than not these acts are considered as acts of intervention on the part of the researcher and tend to affect the credibility and integrity of whatever research is being conducted (Hacking, 1983).Ã There for the relevance of such neutrality becomes apparent because for a researcher to be able to maintain a certain level of credibility and assume a certain moral standard, it becomes necessary to adopt a position that is neutral to the issue and neutral with the subjects of the study. Criticisms against Neutrality Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The foremost criticism against the neutrality of social scientists and researches is that the so called neutrality of any social scientist or researcher in the field of social sciences is a myth particularly when it comes to controversies surrounding the issue (Scott, 1990). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Neutral researchers of the social sciencesÃ¢â¬ , according to Scott, Richards and Martin (1990), Ã¢â¬Å"will be always be thought of by participants as being on the side of the underdogÃ¢â¬ (pg 480).Ã Regardless of the fact that the researcher is neutral, whatever work he accomplishes, he will always been drawn into a debate concerning his topic (Collins, 1979). One field of social science where this has been prevalent is in controversy analysis.Ã While according to a study on this issue, Ã¢â¬Å"the disadvantage of studying controversies is that it may give an unrealistic picture of the day-to-day operations of normal science,Ã¢â¬ it cannot be denied that this is a growing field of interest and has also invited the participation of researchers of the social sciences in an attempt to further understand human behavior (Mulkay 1983). There is impossibility in keeping the neutrality that a researcher is required to possess particularly in this field.Ã Though a researcher may insist on his neutrality, the problem arises once the researcher is drawn into a debate surrounding the controversy and the neutrality that is demanded can no longer be maintained. What this school of thought therefore proposes is that in order for a researcher to maintain his impartiality particularly in this field or in other fields in the social sciences which require intervention and interaction, a certain level of acceptable Ã¢â¬Å"partialityÃ¢â¬ must be allowed for. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The next criticism is one against the utter impossibility of conducting experiments without any degree of interaction between the researcher and the subjects of the study in order to prevent any biases and involvement (Ribes, 2005).Ã The degree of intermingling and cross disciplines among the social sciences and even natural sciences today has created a problem for the researcher to maintain the vision of his neutrality (Bowker, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It has been accepted that Participant Observation is relevant in the conduct of research in the social sciences and that it does allow for a certain degree of involvement.Ã The problem now lies in the significance of the study as a totally neutral research study can quickly become a very biased study depending on the degree of relevance it has to society.Ã An example of this would be research on certain factors in society that contribute to violence. Too much intervention and involvement can lead to too much media participation that the sample becomes unusable.Ã Since social sciences deal with people, any intervention can be seen as contaminating the samples since people become aware of the study and may no longer react naturally.Ã It is clear however that there is a need for intervention because of the cross disciplines that have been developed over the years and it cannot be denied that such are more effective and accurate at coming up with ground breaking studies (Ribes, 2005). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The other major criticism is that social scientists are unable to clearly research anything without any biases because of the strong link or bond between social scientists or researches and the state (Baritz, 1960).Ã Relevant historical accounts state that even as early as 1662, England and France have utilized the services of social researchers to further the ends of the state (Popper, 1945).Ã The state is therefore theorized by some to be the father of social scientists and researchers and as such the social sciences cannot exist without the state. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This attack on the neutrality of researchers of the social sciences uses the findings that there has constantly been state support for the social sciences and as such these researches owe a certain allegiance to the state and cannot be considered as purely impartial because of this so called Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsic linkÃ¢â¬ (Popper, 1945).Ã The strength of this argument lies in the assumption that without the state, no society can exist and therefore leading to the conclusion that social sciences cannot exist without society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã While there may be logic to this argument against the vision of the researcher as a neutral social scientist, emotionally detached and socially separated from their research subjects, this is theÃ weakest argument as such because it basis most of its arguments on unproven relationships.Ã The arguments presented in this criticism clearly show the bias of the researcher with regard to the issue and subject matter. This criticism, however, lends strength to the main flow of this discourse.Ã This shows that it is in the nature of the researcher as a human being to create certain assumptions and bias that make it impossible to maintain total impartiality and neutrality with respect to the field that he is currently involved in.Ã Secondly, this also shows how letting go of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s neutrality in favor of bias and disposing of the scientific method can lead to very faulty assumptions and poorly conceived arguments. It is because of these reasons that lead to the findings that theory that the vision of the researcher as a neutral social scientist, emotionally detached and socially separated from their research subjects, cannot be totally abrogated and must be accepted to a certain degree while allowing for the field to progress given the various advancements in the field of social sciences. Application of Contemporary Social Theories Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In analyzing the criticisms against the vision of the researcher as a neutral scientist, it is relevant that this be analyzed in the context of contemporary social theories.Ã The first contemporary social theory that is relevant in this case is structural functionalism and how it shows the difficulty in maintaining a certain level of detachment from the subject of the study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Structural Functionalism basically tackles the relationship of social activity of human beings to the overall social system that exists in their society (Barnard 2000).Ã The relevance of this theory in formulating the basic guidelines in guiding researches to maintain a neutral stance lies in the fact that all human beings, researchers included, belong to a basic social structure from which it is impossible to detach oneself from.Ã The fact that integral units of every society work together unconsciously towards the maintenance of overall social stability means that a researcher is also unconsciously involved in the social issue which he is studying (Barnard 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another theory of significance in this discourse is the views of contemporary feminism.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Contemporary feminismÃ¢â¬ , according to Grosz, (1994), Ã¢â¬Å"is the negation of factors such as: relationship of gender, sexuality, and the daily lives of specific women to collective needs, capital, labor, and their relation in the mode of production.Ã¢â¬ (pg 153)Ã Essentially, the contribution of this contemporary social theory is that it provides a solid framework for establishing a method by which a researcher is able to maintain academic credibility and integrity by being able to participate objectively in the studies being conducted. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The method by which contemporary feminism has disconnected itself from the struggles of changing the social relations that affect womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives should serve as a model by which a researcher should also be able to disconnect himself from not only the subject matter of the study but the other factors as well (Grosz, 1994). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These two perspectives on contemporary social theories then provide the backbone for the argument in the next segment which will show how a researcher can still be effective as a neutral social scientist. Effectiveness of a Researcher as a Neutral Social Scientist Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This discourse has so far shown that the traditional method of maintaining total impartiality is very difficult if not impossible to achieve.Ã It defies that characterization of man as a social being and goes against the natural order of humans as social beings.Ã This leads one to the conclusion that there are positive points that one can learn from the criticisms.Ã It is therefore relevant at this point of this study to assess the validity of such criticisms and if possible synthesize the main points of the arguments to form a single guideline regarding the role of researchers and in the vision of maintaining not only the Ã¢â¬Å"perceivedÃ¢â¬ neutrality but also the reliability and integrity of any work by a researcher in the field of the social sciences. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first key to being an effective researcher therefore lies in the ability to abide by the principles of the Ã¢â¬Å"scientific methodÃ¢â¬ and in being able to conduct the research, analyze the data and properly maintain a certain distance from the subject matter (Scott, 1990).Ã Yet, it has been proven in this discourse that intervention is relevant and thus total neutrality cannot be maintained by the researcher.Ã This leads to the second key to the success and effectiveness of the researcher. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A researcher must therefore maintain the vision of impartiality and neutrality despite the participant observation that is required in the pursuit of certain studies (Collins, 1979).Ã While the researcher may be linked with and interact with the subject of the study, detachment is not totally necessary to maintain that neutrality that is required (Ribes, 2005).Ã This problem is also resolved in controversy resolutions and debates which, as previously mentioned, reveal whatever biases may have existed and at the same time this may also improve the integrity and credibility of the research project in question. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is therefore clear that the vision of researchers as a neutral social scientist emotionally detached and socially separated from their research subjects is not required in all aspects of the social sciences and can be accepted within a certain degree in order for this field to be able to advance the current level of understanding on society and of human interactions. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion, the vision of researchers as neutral social scientist, emotionally detached and socially separated from their research subjects is correctly criticized by most groups for the main reason that the demands of social sciences given all the various technological advances and methods by which impartiality may be threatened.Ã The danger that the integrity of the social sciences will be deeply questioned by the continued practice of total neutrality is apparent. In order to cope with the ever changing disciplines and to properly apply the deeper understanding of cultures, society and human interactions, it is important to adopt a method that is flexible enough to adapt to the needs of this discipline.Ã It is therefore important to maintain an acceptable degree of involvement or participation while still being aware of the unintended consequences that it may bring as well as the danger of too much intervention. Ã References: Baritz, L. (1960) The Servants of Power. A history of the use of social science in American industry, Wesleyan University. Barnard, A. (2000). History and Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Bowker, G. C. and Star, S. L. (1999) Sorting things out: classification and its consequences. MIT Press. Cambridge, Mass. Collins, H. M., and Pinch, T.J. (1979) The construction of the paranormal: Nothing unscientific is happening. In Sociological Review Monograph No. 27: On the margins of science: The social construction of rejected knowledge, edited by Roy Wallis, 237-70. Keele University Press: University of Keele. Chubin R., Daryl E., and Restivo S. (1983). The mooting of science studies: research programmes and science policy. In Science Observed: Perspectives on the Social Study of Science, Karin D. Knorr-Cetina and Michael Mulkay (eds), 53-83. London: Sage. Grosz, E. (1994) Volatile Bodies: Toward A Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Indiana Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and intervening: introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge Cambridgeshire; New York, Cambridge University Press. 1983 Jacob, M. (1988) Utilization of social science knowledge in science policy: Systems of Innovation Social Science Information. 45: 431-462 Latour, A., Bruno, W. and Woolgar, S. (1979) Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. London: Sage. Mulkay, M, Potter, J. and Yearley, S. (1983). Why an analysis of scientific discourse is needed. In Science Observed: Perspectives on the Social Study of Science, ed. Karin D. Knorr-Cetina and Michael Mulkay, 171-203. London: Sage. Ã Popper, K.(1945) Ã¢â¬Å"Much of our social science still belongs to the Middle Ages., The Open Society and its Enemies. Princeton University Press. New Jersey Ribes, D. (2005) The Positions of the Social Scientist: Social and Technical Acts of Intervention Sociology and Science Studies, University of California-San Diego Ã¢â¬Å"Stufying Digital Library Users in the Wild JCDL Workshop Sasson, H. (1997) On Social Science London School of Economics Centennial Address, London School of Economics Press, London Scott, P, Richards, E. and Martin, B. (1990) Captives of Controversy: The Myth of the Neutral Social Researcher in Contemporary Scientific Controversies Published in Science, Technology, Human Values, Vol. 15, No. 4, Fall 1990, pp. 474-494 Smith, G. (1983) An International Review of Research in the Social Dimensions of Science and Technology Volume 13, No. 1 Sage Publications Wolcott, H.R. (1990) Qualitative inquiry in education: The continuing debate. New York. Teachers College Press Pp 121-152.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Color Purple by Alice Walker Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Color Purple, by Alice Walker, is a very intense book to read. By intense, I mean it is a book touching very difficult and hard aspects of life of a poor, black oppressed woman in the early twentieth century. Walker does social criticism in her novel, mostly criticizing the way black women were treated in the early twentieth century. Walker uses the life experiences of Celie to illustrate her social criticism. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Color Purple is not written in the style of most novels. The author does not tell us everything about the characters, the setting, and why the characters behave the way they do. The novel is written in a series of letters, not dated. There are large gaps between some letters, but this is not revealed by the author; we have to figure it out ourselves. The letters are written in what Walker calls black folk language, which also reduces the easiness of the reading. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When the novel opens, Celie is a young black girl living in Georgia in the early years of the twentieth century. She in an uneducated girl, and writes her letters in common language. Celie is entering her adolescence believing she was raped by her father and that he killed both of their children. She writes to God, because she has no one else to write to. She feels that what happened to her is so terrible that she can only talk about it to someone she feels loves her. She knows her sister Nettie loves her, but she is too young to understand. Celie believe only to God may she talk honestly and openly about her suffering. Celie is not, however, at this point, complaining to God, she is simply confiding in him. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Celie was born into a poor family; her mother was sick most of the time, mentally and physically; there were too many children in the family; and Celie was abused by the man she believed was her father. Celie feels used and abused, but does not understand why. So many bad things have happened to Celie that she lacks self esteem and confidence. Celie does not even feel she is worth enough to sign her name at the end of the letters. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Slowly, Celie evolves into a mature woman with great confidence, but not before her sister Nettie is taken away from her, and she marries a cruel man who really wanted to marry Nettie. For a long time, Celie is almost a slave to her husband, until her husband's mistress comes to live with them to recuperate from The Color Purple By Alice Walker :: essays research papers The Color Purple by Alice Walker Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Color Purple, by Alice Walker, is a very intense book to read. By intense, I mean it is a book touching very difficult and hard aspects of life of a poor, black oppressed woman in the early twentieth century. Walker does social criticism in her novel, mostly criticizing the way black women were treated in the early twentieth century. Walker uses the life experiences of Celie to illustrate her social criticism. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Color Purple is not written in the style of most novels. The author does not tell us everything about the characters, the setting, and why the characters behave the way they do. The novel is written in a series of letters, not dated. There are large gaps between some letters, but this is not revealed by the author; we have to figure it out ourselves. The letters are written in what Walker calls black folk language, which also reduces the easiness of the reading. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When the novel opens, Celie is a young black girl living in Georgia in the early years of the twentieth century. She in an uneducated girl, and writes her letters in common language. Celie is entering her adolescence believing she was raped by her father and that he killed both of their children. She writes to God, because she has no one else to write to. She feels that what happened to her is so terrible that she can only talk about it to someone she feels loves her. She knows her sister Nettie loves her, but she is too young to understand. Celie believe only to God may she talk honestly and openly about her suffering. Celie is not, however, at this point, complaining to God, she is simply confiding in him. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Celie was born into a poor family; her mother was sick most of the time, mentally and physically; there were too many children in the family; and Celie was abused by the man she believed was her father. Celie feels used and abused, but does not understand why. So many bad things have happened to Celie that she lacks self esteem and confidence. Celie does not even feel she is worth enough to sign her name at the end of the letters. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Slowly, Celie evolves into a mature woman with great confidence, but not before her sister Nettie is taken away from her, and she marries a cruel man who really wanted to marry Nettie. For a long time, Celie is almost a slave to her husband, until her husband's mistress comes to live with them to recuperate from
Sunday, January 12, 2020
In the 20th century, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the president of the United States that shaped the American Empire. He was a charismatic optimist whose confidence helped sustain the nation during crisis like the Great Depression and World War II. He received overwhelming support from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Roosevelt began a new era in American history. Despite an attack of poliomyelitis, which paralyzed his legs in 1921, he established social reforms that gave people a new perspective on government. Government was not only expected to protect the people from foreign invaders, but to protect against poverty and unemployment. Roosevelt had also shown his military and diplomatic skill as the Commander in Chief during World War II. Born in 1882 in Hide Park N. Y, he was raised in a high class family, graduated from Harvard University and received his law degree from Columbia Law School. At age 23 he married Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, niece of President Theodore Roosevelt. Even though coming from a privileged childhood, Roosevelt was close to the simple citizenÃ¢â¬ s aspirations. His New Deal program gave jobs for the workers and his wartime policies protected democracy. In 1932, F. D. R took the Democratic presidential nomination on the fourth ballot with John Nance Garner of Texas as his Vice Presidential running mate. Although there was rough competition during the choosing process, most party leaders were happy with the Roosevelt choice. It would help pull votes from the urban-Eastern region of the country. During the November campaign against Hoover, Roosevelt suggested a few parts of the Ã¢â¬Å"New DealÃ¢â¬ . He spoke of relief and public works money. He wanted to develop a plan to cut agricultural overproduction. He was for public power, conservation and unemployment insurance. The repeal of prohibition and stock exchange regulation were also big items on his platform. But he mentioned little about his plans for industrial recovery or labor laws. As much foreign policy experience as he had, he talked very little of it during the campaign. When it came to election day, Roosevelt was the only viable alternative to Hoover, who many blamed for the Great Depression, although critics argue that it was the presidents preceding the Hoover administration. Roosevelt's second election was in 1936. As expected, Roosevelt won by a landslide. This reflected the nation's confidence in the man and his leadership ability. However, the nation still had a long way to go. After another over-all successful term, Roosevelt ran again in 1940. The Republicans based their campaign on the tradition that no President had ever gone for a third term in succession. To counter this, Roosevelt put the spotlight on his administration's achievements. Because of the risky situation abroad, many felt that Roosevelt's expertise was needed if war occurred. The election results against Wendell Willkie were closer than the previous two times. Much of this feeling was based on the idea that it would be a bad thing for the country to change leadership in the middle of the war. Many of the president's advisors felt he would not live through a fourth term, considering his hypertension, and cardiac failure. Because of his condition, the Vice President nomination for the 1944 election was of utmost importance. Roosevelt was persuaded to drop Henry Wallace, whom many regarded as too liberal and emotionally unsuited to be president. Harry Truman of Missouri was chosen to fill the spot. Again, the Republicans argument was term length. No President should serve for 16 years, they declared. The opposing argument by the Democrats was that no country should Ã¢â¬Å"change horses in mid-streamÃ¢â¬ . The election outcome was even slimmer this time, but Roosevelt still captured a hearty vote. By the time Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the economic situation was desperate. Between 13 and 15 million Americans were unemployed. Of these, between 1 and 2 million people were wandering about the country looking for jobs. Thousands lived in cardboard shacks called Ã¢â¬Å"hoovervillesÃ¢â¬ . Panic-stricken people hoping to rescue their deposits had forced 38 states to close their banks. The Depression hit all levels of the social scale, heads of corporations and Wall Street bankers were left begging on the street. Roosevelt's action would be two parted: restore confidence and rebuild the economic and social structure. In one of his addresses, he pushed confidence with his statement, Ã¢â¬Å"the only thing we have to fear, is fear itselfÃ¢â¬ . One of his first steps was to take action upon the bank problem. Because of the Depression, people rushed to the banks to pull their deposits out in return for paper cash and gold. On March 6, 1933, Roosevelt declared a bank holiday that lasted four days. All banks in the nation were closed until the Department of Treasury could examine each one's fiscal situation. Those that were determined to correct their financial condition were allowed to reopen and those who had been badly operated were not allowed. During the Great Depression, 5,504 banks had closed and deposits of nearly $3. 5 billion dollars were lost. Shortly after the President restored confidence in the banks, what is now known as the Ã¢â¬Å"100 daysÃ¢â¬ began on March 9 and ended on June 16, 1933. Franklin Delano Roosevelt began to submit recovery and reform laws for congressional approval. Congress passed nearly all the important bills that he requested, most of them by large majorities. The fact that there was a Democratic Party majority in both houses helped speed things along. What emerged from these100 days was a 3-fold focus, Relief-Recovery-Reform. One of the relief actions was known as the Emergency Relief Act. This established the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) that pushed an appropriation of $500 million to be spent immediately for quick relief. Moreover, the Reforestation Act of 1933 helped stop and repair some of the environmental damage that had occurred as a result of the industrial revolution. More importantly, he created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which eventually employed more than 2,5 million men at various camps. Projects included reforestation, road construction, soil erosion and flood control as well as national park development. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was designed to raise crop prices and raise the standard of living for American farmers. Production was cut to increase demand, therefore raising the price. It also gave the president the power to inflate the currency by devaluating its gold content and issue about $3 billion in paper currency. The United States Supreme Court later struck down the AAA as unconstitutional. Another recovery measure was the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA). It was designed to balance the interests of business and labor and consumers/workers and to reduce unemployment. This act set codes of anti-trust laws and fair competition, as well as setting a new standard: minimum wage. A new idea came about in those 100 days, it was known as the federal corporation. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was the first agency to work much like a private enterprise. The goal of the TVA was to reform one of the poorest parts of the country, the Tennessee River Valley. The TVA was responsible for the construction and management of power plants, dams, electricity, flood control systems and the development of navigation systems. After the initial 100 days, reform continued throughout the first term of the Roosevelt Administration. In Roosevelt's annual address to Congress on January 4, 1935, he outlined phase two of the New Deal, whose main component would be the establishment of the modern welfare system. The federal government would withdraw from the direct relief, leaving it up to state and local governments. This would include social security for the aged, unemployed and ill. Moreover, the farmers were aided by the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). Its goals were to provide electricity to isolated areas where private utility companies did not see it profitable to run lines and set up service. The year of 1935 brought with it numerous reform efforts. These were the final efforts of the New Deal before the nation geared up for war. Included in this was the National Labor Relations Act, whose most important function was to set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), which monitored corporations to ensure worker rights and safety. One of the most important and lasting effects of the Roosevelt Administration was his push for the Social Security Act. This was an innovative plan that was supposed to lead to a nation-wide retirement system. Finally, a Revenue Act of 1935 capped off the New Deal with a tax on the rich, and a tax break on the middle class citizens. The Supreme Court was fairly conservative, and attempted to shoot holes in many of Roosevelt's New Deal programs. The Supreme Court even went as far as to strike the entire AAA program down, claiming that it violated state's rights. FDR was infuriated at the actions of the Court. He thought of them as nine old men who were living in days gone by, far too conservative to see the economic and social needs of today. He soon began to plan retribution, however in secrecy. He called upon his staff to write up the Judicial Reform Act of 1937. Essentially, this document alleged that the Judicial Branch of the federal government was overwhelmed. His answer to solve the dilemma was to use his executive power of appointment and place more Justices on the Court. Another section of the Act suggested that at age 70, each Justice would be supplemented with an additional Justice. This meant up to 15 Supreme Court Justices serving at one time. Roosevelt hoped to load the Court with social liberal Democrats who would not oppose his New Deal programs. After a long period of embarrassing debate, the Senate rejected Roosevelt's proposal. This, in turn, caused Roosevelt to reject the Senate. Roosevelt used his diplomatic and military powers in the later part of his administration nearly as much as he used his executive and legislative powers in the first half. At the time Roosevelt took office, the nation was isolationist. When the Great Depression hit in the 1930's, America became even more concerned with its own problems. However, seeing the importance of a global view and seeing the possible impact of World War II, Roosevelt directed the country toward nations abroad. He also withdrew American occupation forces from some Caribbean republics, and settled oil disputes with Mexico. His desire to spread ties across the Western Hemispheres led to trade agreements with Canada and many South American states. Furthermore, Recognition was given to the Soviet government in November of 1933. This was the first attempt at civil relations since the Russian Revolution in 1917. In 1933, for the first time in 16 years, the two nations exchanged representatives. The isolationist school of thought led to the Neutrality Acts of the 1930's. These acts, passed by Congress, prohibited the US from furnishing weapons or supplies to any nation at war. President Roosevelt disliked the fact that these Acts treated all nations the same, whether a country had attacked another or not. GermanyÃ¢â¬ s aggressiveness in 1939 forced Roosevelt to take a tougher stance. On December 11th 1949, the United States declared war to Germany and Italy. With World War II still in progress, the commander in chief was a candidate in the 1944 elections for a fourth time. He won over the Republican Thomas Dewey. The presidentÃ¢â¬ s advisors feared that F. D. R might not live through another term. In fact, on April 12 1945, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 63. Despite his physical limitations, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a highly popular president. He shaped the value of the free world and guided his citizens through tumultuous years. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËTheir Children would live to see the causes for which he stood for prosperity, freedom, economic justice and political democracyÃ¢â¬ . It can be said that President Roosevelt was a Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËFounding FatherÃ¢â¬ of the American nation, along with all the other greats of Mount Rushmore.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Introduction Language can be seen and heard; it can be diverse or standard. With this in mind, discuss the different roles that language can have in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Language is a human system of communicating that can be seen and heard. Language can be seen by reading and writing, signs or gestures, symbols or pictures and can be heard when talking, reading aloud or actively listening to someone. By using language in these forms it enables us to express our thoughts and feelings, indicates ideas or re-tell our experiences (Fellowes Oakley, 2014). Language can also be standard or diverse. Standard language might refer to Standard Australian English or Standard Academic English whilst reference is made to diverse language when referring to World Englishes, Aboriginal Englishes, different Discourses that are used depending on the subject matter, different languages that are used according to the register required such as formal and informal or languages used for different cultural and social contexts such as social situations, age, gender or race (Caruso, 1997). Using language in any of these forms is an important aspect of being human because we need to connect and communicate with others (Gee Hayes, 2011). Language plays an integral role from the time a child is born as it controls higher mental functions and behaviour and represents a personÃ¢â¬â¢s social and cultural environment (Vialle, Lysaght and Verenikina, 2008). Thesis Statement Language can be seen and heard andShow MoreRelatedLanguage As A System Of Communication1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLanguage is an important aspect in our day to day life because it enables us to communicate. The effective communication is made possible with the help of language. Language and communication are so closely related that they are almost the same. If we used a dictionary to find alternative words for language the top alternative is verbal communication , words , speech and talking . Consider the following definitions of language found in dictionaries and introductory textbooks: a. LanguageRead MoreLanguage As A Form Of Communication Essay1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbehaviors, languages, customs, the things we produce and the methods we use to produce them. The human ability to create and transmit culture is what differentiates us, as humans, from the rest of the animal world. The essential feature of culture, that it is learned and transmitted from one generation to the next, rests on the human capacity to think symbolically. Language, perhaps the most important feature, is a symbolic form of communication. Language is a form of communication. Without language, cultureRead MoreIntercultural Communication : A Discourse Approach1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom different countries. In Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach, Scollon, Scollon, and Jones presents and develops the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëdiscourse systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ as a way to get beyond the culture and the idea that culture is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s background. Rather than depending on Ã¢â¬ËcultureÃ¢â¬â¢ it is advised that it is the different discourse systems into which we have been socialised into should be a guidance to our interpersonal communication Ã¢â¬ËEach definition of culture can lead us down a different pathwayRead MorePersonal Philosophy Reflection Paper1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor the past six weeks, I learned how philosophy has influenced the world globally. Learning that when human beings voice their thoughts with others, they receive a chance to change the world, especially if one person speaks one on one, one personage can change the world of one body. My belief in the power of language is strengthened by philosophy. This philosophy course has encouraged me to share my opinio ns that are not influenced by other peers or older adults, but to deeply reflect and researchRead MoreCommunication Is The Basic Of Human Existence1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdaily life, some people consider that itÃ¢â¬â¢s the basic of human existence (NÃ ©meth, 2015). But what is communication and why it is so important for us? Today I will talk about Ã¢â¬Å"communicationÃ¢â¬ and discuss its importance. Long time ago , ancestors of human beings were living in caves, picked fruits in the trees as food, ate raw meat. And at that time, communication has been a necessary survival skill of them. Just think about that, when ancient humans were hunting a huge animal, they cannot face the hugeRead MoreDo Animals Have Language?1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave language? Are animals capable of language? It is in the opinion of the author that animals do not have the capability of language; this essay will focus and put forward the evidence as to why this opinion takes place. Language is a form of communication; it can be visual, audio or sensory. In humans the vocal language provides only 10 per cent of how we communicate, body language plays a much higher role, however, both verbal and non verbal language in humans is intentional, communicating aboutRead MoreHow Does Language Affect Human Beings?973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"LanguageÃ¢â¬ the word plays very deep and extraordinary meaning since the birth of human being. Since human get notion and action he did not know they can speak and this feature is given by god that we believe in philosophy or in religious manner but, if we believe it as scientific manner also. Language played very great role since the born of homosapians on planet Earth. This feature or power only have human beings only on planet earth whether you look animals or mammals or other human revolutionaryRead MoreThe Terms Of Language And Communication939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo first compare the terms language and communication, we must look into what exactly each is and their key components. Language as a specific notion consists of 3 parts: phonology - the sounds we make when pronouncing it, lexis - the vocabulary or words we use, and grammar - the rules we adhere to when putting them together. Communication however consists of its own five components, those being auditory-v ocal, visual, tactile, olfactory and gustatory. (Crystal, 1997) This immediately highlightsRead MoreThe Communication Barrier Is A Central Part Of Spike Jones Movie1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommunication is incredibly important. Whether it is communicating at work, with a physiatrist, or even just a spouse; how a person communicates directly affects their life. As humans we not only use our voices to communicate but also our bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Humans can tell a lot about another person based on their body language and without body language it can become more difficult to communicate with a person. Communicating without a body can result in a human misconceiving the ideas or intent of the other personRead MorePhilosophy Reflection1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor the past six weeks, I learned how philosophy has influenced the world globally. Learning how not only philosophy, but when human beings voice their thoughts with others, they receive a chance to change the world, even if one pers on speaks one on one, one person can change the world of one person. My belief in the power of language is strengthened by philosophy. This philosophy course has encouraged me to share my opinions that are not influenced by other peers or older adults, but to deeply reflect